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  Sandal Agro Farms  
 
   
 

1. INTRODUCTION
World’s most popular and costliest wood is sandal wood. Sandal is widely known as Chandanamu, Srigandhamu in south India and Chandan in North. It is one of the renowned trees from ancient days. Hindus use this wood and its paste for pooja and religious use. Sandal wood is a small evergreen tree, and partial root parasite, attaining a height of 12-13 meters, with slender drooping as well as erect branching. The tree starts flowering at an early age of 2 to 3 years, Fruit is drupe, purplish, when fully mature and single seeded.

1.1 Botanical Name: Santalum album Inn.
1.2 Family: Santalaceae
1.3 Regional Names:English : Sandal tree, White sandal tree.
Hindi :Safed Chandan, Santal.
Gujarathi :Sukhad.
Telugu :Chandanamu, Gandhapuchekka, Sri Gandhamu
Kannada :Bavanna, Srigandadamara, Agarugandha, Srigandha.
Tamil :Chandanam.
Malayalam :Chandanam



1.4 Parts Used:Heart Wood and Sap Wood. The heart wood is a yellowish brown or orange color.Sap wood is lighter in color and used in ornamental items and furniture, carved boxes, jewel cases, combs, hand fans and walking sticks etc.

1.5 Distribution:
It has been reported by many authors that sandal is indigenous to Peninsula India. But some have a difference of opinion regarding the origin of sandal. According to school of thought, sandal could have had a diphyletic origin simultaneously both in Timor and India.

Sandal plant distributed near around equator 30 Degrees North and 40 Degrees South from Indonesia in the West to Joan Fernandez islands in the east and from Hawaiian Archipelago in the North to New Zealand in the south. In India more than 90 Percent lies in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu covering 8300 sq. Km. World wide, Sandal plant can be seen in south India, Indonesia, Polynesia (Pacific Islands), Fiji and Australia. In India sandal tree is distributed in the dry scrub forest of Salem, Mysore, Coorg, Coimbattore and Nilgiris up to 900 Mtr. altitude, also found in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, and Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and other parts of Tamil Nadu.

Cultivation of Medicinal and Aromatic plants in India is a priority sector for Govt. of India, since there is growing demand every year for domestic needs and export. Government of India declared sandal wood plant as highly endangered plant species in India.

1.6 The major reasons and scope for cultivation:

  1. Exhausting population of sandal plant in our forests due to indiscriminate destruction of forests.
  2. Depending completely on forests from ancient times.
  3. Growing demand nationally and internationally.
  4. There was no permission for growing this plant in fields and at home.
  5. Sandal wood is now highly endangered species in India.
  6. Sandal wood is a perennial plant takes at least 15 years for harvest.
















1.7 Encouraging points for cultivation:

  1. Govt. of India encouraging farmers and growers for cultivation.
  2. Since the plant is highly endangered in Red listed plant species of India and world.
  3. Govt. of India supporting with a subsidy on cultivation with 75% of total cost of cultivation through National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB). APMPB in Andhra Pradesh.
  4. Huge growing market demand.
  5. Many buyers are eager to purchase the wood.
  6. Easy to cultivate.
  7. Forest department removed restrictions on cultivation.
  8. Our Soils and Climate are suitable for cultivation.
  9. Draught and shade resistant.

1.8 Medicinal Uses:
The wood is bitter, dry, antipyretic, aphrodisiac useful in diseases of the heart, burning sensation, cold, bronchitis, vaginal discharges and small pox. The wood is tonic to the heart and the brain. Paste is useful in inflammation and head ache. It has antiseptic properties and can be applied to skin. Local people commonly apply the wood ground up with water in to a paste to local inflammations to the temples in fevers and to skin diseases to allay heat. In Madagascar, the wood is mixed with salt and applied to wounds. The heart wood and root contains scented sandal wood oil, which are highly valued in medicine, cosmetics, perfumery and industries. Wood is used for fine carvings also. Sandal finds many religious uses also.
Sandal wood oil is the base of high quality perfumes. In medicine it is used as antiseptic and antipyretic. The sandal wood is known as a remedy for fever, indigestion and palpitations. The paste of heartwood is applied on inflammations, skin diseases etc. It is considered sacred by Hindus. The heartwood is coolant, and is reported to be bitter, diuretic, disinfectant, anti septic cardiac, sedative and tonic. It is a curative medicine for bronchitis, biliousness, fever, thirst cystitis, dysentery, gonorrhea, ulcers and genitor-urinary tract problems. The paste of heartwood is a medicament for skin problems and in the preparation of Ashokaristam, Chandanadi choornam, Chandanasavam, Anutailam and Dhanvantaram kashayam etc. There are different types of chandana, referred to in Sanskrit literatures. Many adulterants and some synthetic products used in the market have cut down the quality of sandalwood products and medicines.

1.9 Other Uses:
The wood is largely used for making small domestic items; it retains its pleasant perfume for a long time. The wood powder is used for making Agarbathis and as incense powder. The oil is largely used as perfume in in toilet fresheners’ preparations and in insecticides also.

    1. Chemical Constituents:

Major Constituents:
Alfa and Beta Santalol.

Other Constituents:Beta Santalic, tetra santalic, nortricycloeksantalic, Bicycloekasantalic and dihydro beta santalic acids detected in sandal wood oil. Urs-12-en-3beta-yl palmitate and beta-sitisterol isolated from bark. Epi beta santalol isolated.

5. CULTIVATION PACKAGE OF PRACTICES
5.1 SOILS:
Suitable soil for Sandal cultivation is Red Sandy loam, Sandy, Lateritic and even in black soils with varying fertility condition, provided with good water holding capacity and drainage with a soil depth of 20 to 25 feet for better root growth and penetration. Sandal grows better in slight alkaline condition soil PH Range between 6.7. To 7.5

5.2 CLIMATE:
Sandal required hot climate preferably semi arid climate.

5.3 PROPAGATION:
The crop can be raised through seeds by raising nursery in sunken and raised beds are used to raise seedlings. Both of them perform equally well under different climatic conditions.

Seed beds are prepared with sand and red earth in the ratio 3:1. Around 2.5 Kg. seed is spread uniformly over the bed, covered with straw, which should be removed when the leaves start appearing on the seedlings. Sandal suffers from a very virulent disease caused by combined fungal and nematode infection.

When seedling have reached 4 to 6 leaf stage they are transplanted to poly bags along with a seed of “Red gram” (Cajanus cajan), the primary host for better growth of sandal. Seedlings are carefully removed from beds with all roots immediately after transplantation. Watering is to be done once a day, but excess moisture is to be avoided. Host plants are pruned frequently, so that they do not over grow sandal and hamper its growth. Polybags should contain soil mixture of ratio 2:1:1 (Sand: Red earth: Farmyard manure). It as been found that poly bags of 30 X 14 cm size are the best.

Plantable seedlings of about 30cm height can be raised in 6-8 months’ time. A well-branched seedling with a brown stem is ideal for planting in the field.

In this project Plantable Quality Nursery supplied by qualified agency, Planting 6-8 months ready plants directly will reduce the total crop duration, minimizes the risk of raising nursery and assured quality planting material are added advantages.

5.4 PLANTING OUT:
Digging pit size of 2’X2’X2’ filled with 1:2 ratio of red earth and farmyard manure watering for settling down the mixture. Placing the healthy seedling of sandal in the center by digging the small pit ensured that all the root systems are placed properly in the pit so that the tender roots will establish quickly. Planting the host plant in the pit 6” apart from the sandal plant.

5.5 HOST PLANT:
Host plant is required for proper growth of sandal since the sandal plant is parasitic in initial stages of its growth. It procures nutrients from the host plant. Sandal roots spread out to a considerable distance even up to 300 feet and attack host’s roots. Normally any plant can be suitable as host plant but plants like Lagerstroemia species (Banaba leaves); Subabul, Casuarinas, red gram etc. can be the host plant for sandal tree.

5.6 SPACING & PLANT POPULATION:
Pits should be dugged with a spacing of 12’X12’ = 303 plants per one Acre. This is optimum for better plant population and yield. Plant population of at least 300 plants per Acre to be maintained.

5.7 MANURES & FERILIZERS:  8.0 tones of farmyard manure will be sufficient per one acre of sandal crop per year, chemical fertilizers required initially depending on soil fertility status.

5.8 WEEDING AND INTERCULTIVATION:  Regular weeding and inter cultivation to be done to prevent soil moisture and nutrient loss. Inter crops are preferred for additional income and best land utilization and soil management.

5.9 INTER CROPS:  It is also advisable to go for a inter crop which ensures inter cultivation and additional income to the farmer. Intercrops like Coleus forskolii, Banaba leaves and other short duration crops preferred. Short duration crops have shallow root system, that will not going to compete for water and nutrients with main crop.

5.10 IRRIGATION:  Sandal is a rain fed crop. Young plants require watering in summer months at 15-20 days interval till they are fully established.

5.11 PLANT PROTECTION:  Plants should be protected from physical damage, controlling white ants which is major problem in red soils, spray of 2% chloropyriphos on white ant attacked portion of shoot and near around the tree trunk will check the white ant effect.

5.12 SANDAL YIELD:  Sandal tree yields two kinds of wood sapwood and heart wood and yield from inter crops.

5.12.1 SAPWOOD:  Selecting genetically superior seedlings will grow fast and yield good. After 15 years of tree age sandal plant yields at least 2.0 C.Ft. Of sapwood per tree and 2 C.Ft. X 300 trees =600 C.Ft per one Acre, which is used for making furniture and gift boxes etc house hold wooden items.

HEART WOOD (Smelled Wood): Heart wood is used for medicinal purpose and for oil extraction. Sandal tree yields 100 Kg. of Heart wood from stem, roots and branches of each tree and 100 Kg. X 300trees =30,000 Kg. per Acre. Apart from sandal crop as main crop farmer can also get yield from inter crops every year. Cultivation of medicinal plant crops like Santalum album required support of qualified technical people. We have long interaction with M/s Farmwealth Biotech, Hyderabad, who are involved in Cultivation, Marketing, Manufacturing and conducting trainings for medicinal plants cultivation and marketing. M/s Farmwealth Biotech, Agri Business Center Headed by its Proprietor & Consultant Mr. M. Veera Raghavulu, and his associates were highly qualified and has long experience in the industry. They also have regular interaction with Research institutions like CIMAP, Herbal Garden of A.P.Horticultural University and Department of Horticulture, Department of Forest and A.P.Medicinal Plants Board. M/s Farmwealth Biotech have strong knowledge in Technical aspect of medicinal plants Cultivation, Marketing, Financing institutions, Subsidy facilities from Government, Post harvest management of Medicinal Plants etc. We have an understanding with M/s Farmwealth Biotech, for supply of technical inputs for cultivation of Santalum album in my field. M/s Farmwealth Biotech extending their technical support for five years, on consultation basis.

Address and contact
M/s Farmwealth Biotech,
(Growers and Consultants For Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.)
#205, Raghava Towers,
Madinaguda, BHEL Road,
Hyderabad - 500 050
Mobile: 9246163771, 9849605919
Phone: 040-40215409, 40215410
Websites: www.farmwealthbiotech.com
www.youngever.com
E-mail: farm2wealth@yahoo.com
farmwealth@gmail.com


 
     
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